Lockout-Tagout (LOTO) or lock and tag is a safety procedure which is used in industry and research settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not started up again prior to the completion of maintenance or servicing work. It requires that hazardous power sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before any repair procedure is started. "Lock and tag" works in conjunction with a lock usually locking the device or the power source with the hasp, and placing it in such a position that no hazardous power sources can be turned on. The procedure requires that a tag be affixed to the locked device indicating that it should not be turned on.
When two or more subcontractors are working on different parts of a larger overall system, the locked-out device is first secured with a folding scissors clamp that has many padlock holes capable of holding it closed. Each subcontractor applies their own padlock to the clamp. The locked-out device cannot be activated until all workers have signed off on their portion of the project and removed their padlock from the clamp.
In the United States a lock selected by color, shape or size (e.g. red padlock) is used to designate a standard safety device, locking and securing hazardous energy. No two keys or locks should ever be the same. A person's lock and tag must not be removed by anyone other than the individual who installed the lock and tag unless removal is accomplished under the direction of the employer. Employer procedures and training for such removal must have been developed, documented and incorporated into the employer's energy control program
Lock Out Tag Out Safety 1989 NIOSH
Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) refers to specific practices and procedures to safeguard employees from the unexpected energization or startup of machinery and equipment, or the release of hazardous energy during service or maintenance activities. In a study conducted by the United Auto Workers (UAW), 20% of the fatalities (83 of 414) that occurred among their members between 1973 and 1995 were attributed to inadequate hazardous energy control procedures specifically, lockout/tagout procedures.
Hazardous energy and its isolation Modern machinery can contain many hazards to workers, from things like electrical, mechanical, pneumatic or hydraulic sources. For example a typical industrial machine may contain things like hot fluids, moving presses, blades, propellors, electrical heaters, conveyor belts with pinch points, moving chains, ultraviolet light, etc.
The National Electric Code states that a safety/service disconnect must be installed within sight of serviceable equipment. The safety disconnect ensures the equipment can be isolated and there is less chance of someone turning the power back on if they can see the work going on. These safety disconnects usually have multiple places for locks so more than one person can work on equipment safely.
Disconnecting or making safe the device is known as isolation. This is accompanied by the tagging of the device to let others know not to de-isolate the device.
In industrial processes it can be difficult to establish where the appropriate danger sources might be. For example a food processing plant may have input and output tanks and high temperature cleaning systems connected, but not in the same room or area of the factory. It would not be unusual to have to visit several areas of the factory in order to effectively isolate a device for service (e.g. device itself for power, upstream material feeders, downstream feeders and control room).
Modern safety manufacturers provide a range of isolation devices specifically designed to fit various switches, valves and effectors. For example most modern circuit-breakers have a provision to have a small padlock attached to prevent their activation. For other devices such as ball or gate valves, plastic pieces which either fit against the pipe and prevent movement, or clam-shell style objects, which completely surround the valve and prevent its manipulation are used.
A common feature of these devices is their bright color, usually red to increase visibility and allow workers to readily see if a device is isolated. Also, the devices are usually of such a design and construction to prevent it being removed with any moderate force. (That is to say that an isolation device does not have to stand up to a chainsaw, but if an operator forcibly removes it, it will be immediately visible that it has been tampered with).
Lockout: a guide to safe work practices
This video provides a comprehensive overview on lock out used to control energy in machines. Protect your workers from accidents caused by the inadvertent operation of control devices.
Site polices regarding lockout/tagout Many sites have the officially stated policy that only the person who tagged the device can untag it. This means that if a worker goes home after their shift without removing the tag from a device which is ready for service, then they will have to travel back to the site to untag it. Giving approval for the removal of a tag over the phone is not an option.
Whilst this policy might make it seem as if it is encouraging workers to take the risk of not tagging out in the first place, it is usually accompanied by a policy stating that operating on a device without tagging it out will result in instant dismissal.
Identification The tag must have an identification showing the name of the person doing the lock and tag and a contact phone number.
Lock Out Tag Out Health and Safety Training Video
Industry safety standard in the United States In industry this is an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, as well as for electrical NFPA 70E. OSHA’s standard on the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout-Tagout), found in CFR 1910.147, spells out the steps employers must take to prevent accidents associated with hazardous energy. The standard addresses practices and procedures necessary to disable machinery and prevent the release of potentially hazardous energy while maintenance or servicing activities are performed.
Two other OSHA standards also contain energy control provisions: 29 CFR 1910.269 and 1910.333. In addition, some standards relating to specific types of machinery contain deenergization requirements such as 29 CFR 1910.179(l)(2)(i)(c)(requiring the switches to be “open and locked in the open position” before performing preventive maintenance on overhead and gantry cranes). The provisions of Part 1910.147 apply in conjunction with these machine-specific standards to assure that employees will be adequately protected against hazardous energy.
If employees service or maintain machines where the unexpected startup, energization, or the release of stored energy could cause injury, the OSHA standard applies. The standard applies to all sources of energy, including, but not limited to: mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, and thermal energy.
The standard does not cover electrical hazards from work on, near, or with conductors or equipment in electric utilization (premise wiring) installations, which are outlined by 29 CFR Part 1910 Subpart S. You can find the specific lockout and tagout provisions for electrical shock and burn hazards in 29 CFR Part 1910.333. Controlling hazardous energy in installations for the exclusive purpose of power generation, transmission, and distribution, including related equipment for communication or metering, is covered by 29 CFR 1910.269.
The standard also does not cover the agriculture, construction, and maritime industries or oil and gas well drilling and servicing. Other standards concerning the control of hazardous energy, however, apply in many of these industries and situations.
Exceptions The standard does not apply to general industry service and maintenance activities in the following situations, when:
Exposure to hazardous energy is controlled completely by unplugging the equipment from an electric outlet and where the employee doing the service or maintenance has exclusive control of the plug. This applies only if electricity is the only form of hazardous energy to which employees may be exposed. This exception encompasses many portable hand tools and some cord and plug connected machinery and equipment.
An employee performs hot-tap operations on pressurized pipelines that distribute gas, steam, water, or petroleum products, for which the employer shows the following:
Continuity of service is essential;
Shutdown of the system is impractical; and
The employee follows documented procedures and uses special equipment that provides proven, effective employee protection.
The employee is performing minor tool changes or other minor servicing activities that are routine, repetitive, and integral to production, and that occur during normal production operations. In these cases, employees must have effective, alternative protection.